2015年英语专四真题及答案解析

求个稳定的时时彩计划 www.23wccr.cn A. cheerfully B. wholeheartedly C. politely D. quietly

70. __ ___ and business leaders were delighted at the decision to hold the national motor

fair in the city.

A. Civil B. Civilized C. Civilian D. Civic

71. The city council is planning a huge road-building programme to ease congestion. The

underlined part means __ ___.

A. calm B. relieve C. comfort D. still

72. His unfortunate appearance was offset by an attractive personality. The underlined

part means all the following EXCEPT ____.

A. improved B. made up for C. balanced D. compensated for

73. The doctor said that the gash in his check required stitches. The underlined part means ____.

A. lump B. depression C. swelling D. cut

74. During the economic crisis, they had to cut back production and __ ___ workers. A. lay off B. lay into C. lay down D. lay aside

75. The university consistently receives a high __ ____ for the quality of its teaching and research.

A. standard B. evaluation C. rating D. comment

76. To mark its one hundredth anniversary, the university held a series of activities

including conferences, film shows, etc. The underlined part means __ ___. A. signify B. celebrate C. symbolize D. suggest

77. His fertile mind keeps turning out new ideas. The underlined part means _ ____. A. abundant B. unbelievable C. productive D. generative 78. The local news paper has a ___ __ of 100,000 copies a day. A. spread B. circulation C. motion D. flow

79. These issues were discussed at length during the meeting. The underlined part means __ ___.

A. eventually B. subsequently C. lastly D. fully

80. A couple of young people were giving out leaflets in front of the department store.

The underlined part means __ ___.

A. distributing B. handling C. dividing D. arranging PART V READING COMPREHENSION

Text A

Inundated by more information than we can possibly hold in our head, we're increasingly handing off the job of remembering to search engines and smart phones. Google is even

reportedly working on eyeglasses that could one day recognize faces and supply details about whoever you're looking at. But new research shows that outsourcing our memory – and

expecting that information will be continually and instantaneously available --is changing our cognitive habits.

Research conducted by Betsy Sparrow, an assistant professor of psychology at Columbia University, has identified three new realities about how we process information in the Internet age. First, her experiments showed that when we don't know the answer to a question, we now think about where we can find the nearest Web connection instead of the subject of the question itself. A second revelation is that when we expect to be able to find information again later on, we don't remember it as well as when we think it might become unavailable.

And then there is the researchers' final observation: the expectation that we'll he able to locate inforination down the line leads us to form a memory not of the fact itself but of where we'II be able to find it.

But this handoff comes with a downside. Skills like critical thinking and analysis must develop in the context of facts: we need something to think and reason about, after all. And these facts can't be Googled as we go;they need to be stored in the original hard drive, our long-term memory. Especially in the case of children, \says Daniel Willingham, a professor of psychology, at the University of Virginia -- meaning that the days of drilling the multiplication table and memorizing the names of the Presidents aren't over quite yet. Adults, too, need to recruit a supply of stored knowledge in order to situate and evaluate new information they encounter. You can't Google context.

Last, there's the possibility, increasingly terrifying to contemplate, that our machines fail us. As Sparrow puts it, \more like losing a friend.\make sure it's fully charged.

81. Google’s eyeglasses are supposed to _ __.

[A]improve our memory [B]function like memory [C]help us see faces better [D]work like smart phones 82. According to the passage, ―cognitive habits‖ refers to _ __.

[A] how we deal with information [B] functions of human memory [C] the amount of information [D] the availability of information

83. Which of the following statements about Sparrow’s research is CORRECT? [A] We remember people and things as much as before. [B] We remember more Internet connections than before.

[C] We pay equal attention to location and content of information. [D]We tend to remember location rather than the core of facts. 84. What does the author mean by ―context‖?

[A]It refers to long-term memory. [B]It refers to a new situation. [C]It refers to a store of knowledge. [D]It refers to the search engine. 85. What is the implied message of the author? [A]Web connections aid our memory. [B]People differ in what to remember. [C]People keep memory on smart phones. [D]People need to exercise their memory.

Text B

I was a second-year medical student at the university, and was on my second day of rounds at a nearby hospital. My university's philosophy was to get students seeing patients early in their education. Nice idea,but it overlooked one detail:second-year students know next to nothing about medicine.

Assigned to my team that day was an attending - a senior faculty member who was there mostly to make patients feel they weren't in the hands of amateurs. Many attendings were researchers who didn't have much recent hospital experience. Mine was actually an arthritis specialist. Also along was a resident (the real boss, with a staggering mastery of medicine, at least to a rookie like myself). In addition there were two interns(住院实习医生). These guys were just as green as I was,but in a scarier way: they had recently graduated from the medical

school, so they were technically MDs.

I began the day at 6:30 am. An intern and I did a quick check of our eight patients; later, we were to present our findings to the resident and then to the attending. I had three patients and the intern had the other five - piece of cake.

But when I arrived in the room of 71-year-old Mr. Adams,he was sitting up in bed, sweating heavily and panting (喘气). He'd just had a hip operation and looked terrible. I listened to his lungs with my stethoscope, but they sounded clear. Next I checked the log of his vital signs and saw that his respiration and heart rate had been climbing, but his

temperature was steady. It didn't seem like heart failure, nor did it appear to be pneumonia. So I asked Mr. Adams what he thought was going on. \

So I attributed his condition to the stuffy room and told him the rest of the team would return in a few hours. He smiled and feebly waved goodbye.

At 8:40 am., during our team meeting, \loudspeaker. I froze.

That was Mr. Adams's room.

When we arrived, he was motionless.

The autopsy (尸体解剖) later found Mr. Adams had suffered a massive pulmonary embolism (肺部栓塞). A blood clot had formed in his leg, worked its way to his lungs, and cut his breathing capacity in half. His symptoms had been textbook: heavy perspiration and shortness of breath despite clear lungs. The only thing was: I hadn't read that chapter in the textbook yet. And I was too scared, insecure, and proud to ask a real doctor for help.

This mistake has haunted me for nearly 30 years, but what's particularly frustrating is that the same medical education system persists. Who knows how many people have died or suffered harm at the hands of students as naive as I, and how many more will?

86. Why was the author doing rounds in a hospital? [A]He himself wanted to have practice. [B]Students of all majors had to do so. [C]It was part of his medical training. [D]He was on a research team.

87. We learn that the author’s team members had __.

[A]much practical experience [B]adequate knowledge

[C]long been working there [D]some professional deficiency

88. While the author was examining Mr. Adams, all the following symptoms caught his

attention EXCEPT __ __.

[A]moving difficulty [B]steady temperature [C]faster heart rate [D]breathing problem

89. ―His symptoms had been textbook‖ means that his symptoms were _ ___. [A]part of the textbook [B]no longer in the textbook

[C]recently included in the textbook [D]explained in the textbook

90. At the end of the passage, the author expresses __ __ about the medical education system.

[A]optimism [B]hesitation [C]concern [D]support

TEXT C

The war on smoking, now five decades old and counting, is one of the nation's greatest

public health success stories - but not for everyone.

As a whole, the country has made amazing progress. In 1964, four in ten adults in the US smoked; today fewer than two in ten do. But some states - Kentucky, South Dakota and Alabama to name just a few - seem to have missed the message that smoking is deadly. Their failure is the greatest disappointment in an effort to save lives that was started on Jan. 11, 1964, by the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. Its finding that smoking is a cause of lung cancer and other diseases was major news then. The hazards of smoking were just starting to emerge.

The report led to cigarette warning labels, a ban on TV ads and eventually an

anti-smoking movement that shifted the nation's attitude on smoking. Then, smokers were cool. Today, many are outcasts, rejected by restaurants, bars, public buildings and even their own workplaces. Millions of lives have been saved.

The formula for success is no longer guesswork: Adopt tough warning labels, air public service ads, fund smoking cessation programs and impose smoke-free laws. But the surest way to prevent smoking, particularly among price-sensitive teens, is to raise taxes. If you can stop them from smoking, you've won the war. Few people start smoking after turning 19. The real-life evidence of taxing power is powerful. The 10 states with the lowest adult smoking rates slap an average tax of $2.42 on every pack -- three times the average tax in the states with the highest smoking rates.

New York has the highest cigarette tax in the country, at $4.35 per pack, and just 12 percent of teens smoke, far below the national average of 18 percent. Compare that with Kentucky, where taxes are low (60 cents), smoking restrictions are weak and the teen smoking rate is double New York's. Other low-tax states have similarly dismal records. Enemies of high tobacco taxes cling to the tired argument that they fall

disproportionately on the poor. True, but so do the deadly effects of smoking, far worse than a tax. The effect of the taxes is amplified further when the revenue is used to fund initiatives that help smokers quit or persuade teens not to start.

Anti-smoking forces have plenty to celebrate this week, having helped avoid 8 million premature deaths in the past 50 years. But as long as 3,000 adolescents and teens take their first puff each day, the war is not won.

91. What does \

[A] Continuing. [B] Including. [C] Calculating. [D] Relying on. 92. According to the context, \ [A] those adults who continue to smoke [B] those states that missed the message [C] findings of the report [D] hazards of smoking

93. The following are all efforts that led to the change of attitude on smoking EXCEPT_____.

[A] rejecting by the public [B] cigarette warning labels [C] anti-smoking campaigns [D] anti-smoking legislation 94. According to the author, raising tax on cigarettes_______. [A] is unfair to the poor [B] is an effective measure

[C] increases public revenue [D] fails to solve the problem 95. What is the passage mainly about? [A] How to stage anti-smoking campaigns.

[B] The effects of the report on smoking and health. [C] Tax as the surest path to cut smoking.

[D] The efforts to cut down on teenage smoking. TEXT D

Attachment Parenting is not Indulgent Parenting. Attachment parents do not \ children. Spoiling is done when a child is given everything that they want regardless of what they need and regardless of what is practical. Indulgent parents give toys for tantrums(发脾气), ice cream for breakfast. Attachment parents don't give their children everything that they want, they give their children everything that they need. Attachment parents believe that love and comfort are free and necessary. Not sweets or toys.

Attachment Parenting is not \that we understand that tantrums and tears come from emotions and not manipulation. And our

children understand this too, They cry and have tantrums sometimes, of course. But they do this because their emotions are so overwhelming that they need to get it out. They do not expect to be \listen. We pick up our babies when they cry, and we respond to the tears of our older children because we believe

firmly that comfort is free, love is free, and that when a child has need for comfort and love, it is our job to provide those things. We are not afraid of tears. We don't avoid them. We hold our children through them and teach them that when they are hurt or frustrated we are here to comfort them and help them work through their emotions.

Attachment Parenting is not Clingy Parenting. I do not cling to my children, In feet, I'm pretty free-range. As soon as they can move they usually move away from me and let me set up a chase as they crawl, run, skip and hop on their merry way to explore the world, Sure, I carry them and hug them and chase them and kiss them and rock them and sleep with them, But this is not me following them everywhere and pulling them back to me. This is me being a home base. The \attaching to them like parental leeches.

Attachment Parenting is not Selfish Parenting. It is also not selfless parenting, We are not doing it for us, and we are not doing it to torment ourselves,

Attachment parenting is not Helicopter Parenting. I don't hover, I supervise, I follow, I teach, I demonstrate, I explain. I don't slap curious hands away, I show how to do things safely, I let my child do the things that my child wishes to do, first with help and then with supervision and finally with trust, I don't insist that my 23 month old hold my hand when we walk on the sidewalk because I know that I can recall him with my voice because he trusts me to allow him to explore and he trusts me to explain when something is dangerous and to help him satisfy his curiosities safely.

Most of the negative things that I hear about \describe something that is entirely unlike Attachment Parenting. Attachment Parenting is child-centric and focuses on the needs of the child. Children need structure, rules, and boundaries. Attachment Parents simply believe that the child and the parent are allies, not adversaries, And that children are taught, not trained.

96. What makes attachment parents different from indulgent parents is that they . A. show more love to their children B. think love is more important

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